Electrical Diagram / November 13, 2017 / Mina Titus.
One means of doing analog-to-digital conversion is to use a clocked counter that feeds a digital-to-analog converter, whose output is compared with the analog signal to stop the count when the digital-to-analog output exceeds the analog signal. The counter output is then the analog-to-digital output. The comparator for such an analog-to-digital converter is similar to an open-loop operational amplifier (which changes saturation level when one of the differential input levels crosses the other). Other types of analog-to-digital converters, called flash converters, can do the conversion in a shorter time by use of parallel operations, but they are more expensive.
Often, though, they are used for other purposes, such as to route signals in logic circuits. Transistors can be considered the workhorses of modern electronic circuits, and consequently many types of transistors have been developed, among which the most widely used are the bipolar junction transistor (BJT), the junction field-effect transistor (JFET), and the metal oxide silicon field-effect transistor (MOSFET).
Block diagrams are widely used in all fields of engineering, management science, criminal justice, economics, and the physical sciences for the modeling and analysis of systems.
Since active devices usually supply signal energy to an electronic circuit, and since energy can only be transformed and not created, a source of energy is needed when active devices are present. This energy is usually obtained from batteries or through rectification of sinusoidal voltages supplied by power companies. When inserted into an electronic circuit, such a source of energy fixes the quiescent operation of the circuit; that is, it allows the circuit to be biased to a given operating point with no signal applied, so that when a signal is present it will be processed properly. To be useful, an electronic circuit produces one or more outputs; often inputs are applied to produce the outputs. These inputs and outputs are called the signals and, consequently, generally differ from the bias quantities, though often it is hard to separate signal and bias variables. Biasing of electronic circuits is an important, non- trivial, and often overlooked aspect of their operation.